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Identification of a Kakadu bird

Identification of a Kakadu bird


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This species of bird was spotted in Kakadu National Park, NT, Australia. It looks a bit like a lemon-bellied fly catcher, but I think my bird here is a tad bigger than the fly catcher, but I am unsure.

I was hoping one of the more ecologically proficient people here could help me out.

Note: This is the 3rd related question on this topic, so feel free to close-vote-for-whatever-reason, but I am generating a photo album with all the birds I have spotted there (heaps!), and a few of them I can't identify with the limited resources I have.


It is great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis). It is much bigger than the mentioned flycatcher. I have seen both species and there is no room for confusion. Most of the pictures online are birds perched on the ground next to their "buildings", but I found a picture that should convince you.

Notice:

-Stout bill

-Patterned wing coverts

-Marks on the undertail coverts


Palm cockatoo

The palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands, and Cape York Peninsula. It has a very large black beak and prominent red cheek patches. [2]

P. a. aterrimus [Gmelin 1788]
P. a. goliath [Kuhl 1820]
P. a. macgillivrayi [Mathews 1927]
P. a. stenolophus [van Ort 1911]


What's Inside

This course steps you through each chapter from the textbook. Lessons contain a short video from your instructors introducing key insights and curated collections of online resources to expand your knowledge base. Exams are divided up into individual quizzes that take 15-20 minutes to complete and provide immediate feedback to correct misconceptions and reinforce important facts. An expanded online glossary helps you learn how to express yourself like an ornithologist.


Two New Bird Species Identified in Tanzania

New species of Cisticola warblers from the Kilombero floodplain of Tanzania: at the top, Kilombero cisticola at the bottom white-tailed cisticola for both species, the bird in the front is painted after the type specimen while the bird behind is based on photos of birds in more worn plumages. Image credit: Jon Fjeldså.

Cisticola is a genus of small insect-eating birds in the Old World passerine family Cisticolidae.

Established by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829, it contains over 50 recognized species.

Of these species, only two are found outside of Africa: one in Madagascar and the other from Asia to Australasia.

Cisticola warblers primarily inhabit wetlands, savannah, broadleaved woodlands and upland habitats, almost exclusively in Africa,” said University of Copenhagen researcher Lars Dinesen and his colleagues from Denmark, Sweden, South Africa and the United States.

“Their identification and classification have been problematic for both professional and amateur ornithologists because of their cryptic coloration, seasonal variation in plumage and the patchy geographical distributions of many of the currently recognized species.”

The two new Cisticola species are endemic to the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain of southwestern Tanzania.

“The presence of two undescribed Cisticola warblers in the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain in central Tanzania has been known since the 1980s and these putative new species have been illustrated in field guides on African birds, although with no formal name,” the researchers explained.

“Based on the combined evidence from genetics, morphology and bioacoustics, we conclude that these two cisticolas represent independent species.”

One of the two new species, named the Kilombero cisticola (Cisticola bakerorum), is distributed in lowland marshes at elevations between 240 and 305 m.

It prefers flooded reedbeds and is common along the Kilombero River and the other major river channels of the Kilombero floodplain.

The second species, the white-tailed cisticola (Cisticola anderseni), is known from the Kilombero floodplain south of the rural town of Ifakara in southern central Tanzania.

Both species became isolated and diverged from their sister-species between 2.5 and 3.5 million years ago.

“The Kilombero floodplain was once connected with the vast wetland habitats of the ancient Zambian Luangwa drainage system,” the scientists said.

“However, this connection was broken in the Late Miocene, with the formation of the Malawi Rift.”

“Our genetic data suggest that the cisticolas of the Kilombero floodplain are evolutionarily much too young to have been part of the fauna of this ancient wetland system, and more probably they colonized the area from the adjacent highlands or from the neighboring coastal plains.”

The authors propose that both species should be classified as Globally Endangered, owing to immense anthropogenic pressures to the floodplain.

“The fieldwork suggests that the Kilombero cisticola is quite narrowly associated with water and flooded marsh with tall reeds and sedges along the major river channels, with a preference for tall Phragmithes mauritianus,” they said.

“Whereas the white-tailed cisticola prefers shorter or more open vegetation with patches of drier habitat, where it feeds by walking on sandy ground.”

“While this difference in habitat use may make the two Cisticola species differently affected by the intensive recent land-use, we propose to classify both species as Endangered (following criteria of IUCN 2019) due to an inferred population size reduction as a result of an alarming decrease in habitat quality.”

A paper describing the discovery was published in the journal Ibis.

Jon Fjeldså et al. Description of two new Cisticola species endemic to the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain of southwestern Tanzania. Ibis, published online May 17, 2021 doi: 10.1111/ibi.12971


Responses

There is a linked research and management response to this biodiversity decline. For research, the most pressing requirement is to identify the principal cause and interactive pathways of the decline. Of the four proximate factors in Figure 1, we have a reasonable understanding of the role and workings of habitat change recent studies have advanced knowledge of the role and impacts of cane toads and studies currently underway are suggesting that disease is not likely to be the principal driver. In contrast, our knowledge of the abundance, ecology, and impact of feral cats in northern Australia is particularly limited. Hence, the research priority is to (1) assess the impacts of cats on native mammal fauna, particularly through experimental contrasts using cat exclosure fencing (2) identify mechanisms that might account for a possible recent increase in the prevalence of cats or a recent exacerbation of their impacts on native mammals (3) assess the extent to which the impacts of predation by cats might be affected by other factors, most notably fire regime and (4) identify practical and cost-effective management responses for the difficult problem of broad-scale control of feral cats. This research agenda should provide definitive evidence about the extent to which feral cats are driving the native mammal decline, a distinction that has been difficult to determine in many comparable situations elsewhere, but one which is critical for the effectiveness of any management response ( Gurevitch & Padilla 2004 Ricciardi 2004 ).

One other main priority, which bridges research and management, is to establish monitoring programs more representatively across northern Australia, wherever possible tied to the measurement of the effectiveness of management interventions. This will require a long-term commitment from different levels of government and land-management agencies.

Management responses must be both policy related and operational. In this largely “natural” landscape, policy should embed explicit obligation on all landholders to maintain biodiversity, and seek broad-scale management that is coordinated across all tenures. For existing conservation reserves, the obligation to conserve biodiversity should be hard-wired into management planning, performance measurement, and resourcing ( Parr et al. 2009 ).

There has been policy development in recent years relating to regulation of the introduction and deliberate spread of nonnative biota (in this case, particularly invasive pasture grasses), but the continuing range expansion of many invasive species outstrips or eludes policy advance.

The pastoral industry remains a dominant force in northern Australia, although there is a recent trend, especially in the nongovernment sector, to manage pastoral lands for conservation purposes (e.g., by removing stock and implementing fire management with explicit ecological objectives), and to develop cooperative arrangements to manage parts of their properties for conservation outcomes. There is scope for this to be further developed.

On Indigenous lands, recent policy development has resulted in a substantial growth of local ranger schemes and the creation of Indigenous Protected Areas ( Gilligan 2006 ). Over the last two decades, these have expanded the conservation reserve system in the region from 6 to 10% ( Garnett et al. 2010 ). In some cases, resourcing for these schemes has been supplemented by carbon funding arising from more benign fire management, but the policy setting for such carbon funding remains unsettled and limited.

Regardless of the policy context, for biodiversity there is a clear practical requirement to manage fire more effectively, particularly to reduce fire extent and intensity over large landscapes, and to increase heterogeneity (fire patchiness) and the extent and proportion of longer unburnt habitat.

Finally, as is the case in other regions of Australia, the islands of northern Australia provide a considerable conservation refuge (largely because many are uninhabited and/or have none or few of the threats that are pervasive on mainland areas), and require explicit management consideration. Most are Aboriginal owned, and policy and management needs to be developed collaboratively. For example, there is currently no regulation relating to the introduction of cats to these islands, not withstanding the recent demonstration of the rapid local extinction of native mammals following the introduction of cats to islands in the Sir Edward Pellew group of northern Australia (Woinarski et al. unpubl. data).


Monitoring indicates greater resilience for birds than for mammals in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia

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In: Wildlife Research , Vol. 39, 2012, p. 397-407.

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

T1 - Monitoring indicates greater resilience for birds than for mammals in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia

AU - Zichy-Woinarski, John Casimir

N2 - Context A previous study reported major declines for native mammal species from Kakadu National Park, over the period 200109. The extent to which this result may be symptomatic of more pervasive biodiversity decline was unknown. Aims Our primary aim was to describe trends in the abundance of birds in Kakadu over the period 200109. We assessed whether any change in bird abundance was related to the arrival of invading cane toads (Rhinella marina), and to fire regimes. Methods Birds were monitored at 136 1-ha plots in Kakadu, during the period 200104 and again in 200709. This program complemented sampling of the same plots over the same period for native mammals. Key results In contrast to the decline reported for native mammals, the richness and total abundance of birds increased over this period, and far more individual bird species increased than decreased. Fire history in the between-sampling period had little influence on trends for individual species. Interpretation of the overall positive trends for bird species in Kakadu over this period should be tempered by recognition that most of the threatened bird species present in Kakadu were unrecorded in this monitoring program, and the two threatened species for which there were sufficient records to assess trends partridge pigeon (Geophaps smithii) and white-throated grass-wren (Amytornis woodwardi) both declined significantly. Conclusions The current decline of the mammal fauna in this region is not reflected in trends for the region's bird fauna. Some of the observed changes (mostly increases) in the abundance of bird species may be due to the arrival of cane toads, and some may be due to local or regional-scale climatic variation or variation in the amount of flowering. The present study provides no assurance about threatened bird species, given that most were inadequately recorded in the study (perhaps because their decline pre-dated the present study). Implications These contrasting trends between mammals and birds demonstrate the need for biodiversity monitoring programs to be broadly based. The declines of two threatened bird species over this period indicate the need for more management focus for these species.

AB - Context A previous study reported major declines for native mammal species from Kakadu National Park, over the period 200109. The extent to which this result may be symptomatic of more pervasive biodiversity decline was unknown. Aims Our primary aim was to describe trends in the abundance of birds in Kakadu over the period 200109. We assessed whether any change in bird abundance was related to the arrival of invading cane toads (Rhinella marina), and to fire regimes. Methods Birds were monitored at 136 1-ha plots in Kakadu, during the period 200104 and again in 200709. This program complemented sampling of the same plots over the same period for native mammals. Key results In contrast to the decline reported for native mammals, the richness and total abundance of birds increased over this period, and far more individual bird species increased than decreased. Fire history in the between-sampling period had little influence on trends for individual species. Interpretation of the overall positive trends for bird species in Kakadu over this period should be tempered by recognition that most of the threatened bird species present in Kakadu were unrecorded in this monitoring program, and the two threatened species for which there were sufficient records to assess trends partridge pigeon (Geophaps smithii) and white-throated grass-wren (Amytornis woodwardi) both declined significantly. Conclusions The current decline of the mammal fauna in this region is not reflected in trends for the region's bird fauna. Some of the observed changes (mostly increases) in the abundance of bird species may be due to the arrival of cane toads, and some may be due to local or regional-scale climatic variation or variation in the amount of flowering. The present study provides no assurance about threatened bird species, given that most were inadequately recorded in the study (perhaps because their decline pre-dated the present study). Implications These contrasting trends between mammals and birds demonstrate the need for biodiversity monitoring programs to be broadly based. The declines of two threatened bird species over this period indicate the need for more management focus for these species.


Contents

The term galah is derived from gilaa, a word found in Yuwaalaraay and neighbouring Aboriginal languages. [5]

The galah is about 35 cm (14 in) in length, and weighs 270–350 g (10–12 oz). It has a pale silver to grey back, a pale grey rump, a pink face and breast, and a light pink mobile crest. It has a bone-coloured beak, and the bare skin of the eye ring is carunculated. It has grey legs. The sexes appear similar however, adult birds differ in the colour of the irises the male has very dark brown (almost black) irises and the female has mid-brown or red irises. Adults are more brightly coloured than juveniles. Juveniles have a greyish breast, crown, and crest, and brown irises with whitish non-carunculated eye rings. [6]

Female (note the reddish iris)

A juvenile galah feeding on a metropolitan lawn in Sydney

The galah can be found throughout Australia, and is absent only from the driest areas and the far north of Cape York Peninsula. Though the presence of the galah has been documented in Tasmania at least since the 1840s, it remains unclear whether it is indigenous to that island. [7] [8] It is common in metropolitan areas such as Adelaide, Perth, and Melbourne, and abundant in open habitats that offer at least some scattered trees for shelter. It is common in all habitats in its range except for dense forests, especially those with a large amount of rainfall. [9] The changes brought by European settlement — a disaster for many species — have been highly beneficial for the galah because of the clearing of forests in fertile areas and the provision of stock-watering points in arid zones. While it is mostly found in inland areas, the galah is rapidly colonizing coastal regions. [9]

The classification of the galah was difficult. It was separated in the monotypic genus Eolophus, but the further relationships were not clear. Obvious morphological similarities are shared between the galah and the white cockatoos that make up the genus Cacatua and indeed the galah was initially described as Cacatua roseicapilla. Early DNA studies allied the galah with the cockatiel or placed it close to some Cacatua species of completely different appearance. In consequence, the ancestors of the galah, the cockatiel and Major Mitchell's cockatoo were thought to have diverged from the main white cockatoo line at some stage prior to that group's main radiation this was indeed correct except for the placement of the cockatiel. Ignorance of this fact, however, led to attempts to resolve the evolutionary history and prehistoric biogeography of the cockatoos, which ultimately proved fruitless because they were based on invalid assumptions [ example needed ] to start with. [ citation needed ]

It fell to the study of Brown & Toft (1999) to compare the previously available data with their mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence [ clarify ] research and resolve the issue. Today, the galah is seen, along with Major Mitchell's cockatoo, as an early divergence from the white cockatoo lineage, which has not completely lost its ability to produce an overall pink (Major Mitchell's) or pink and grey (galah) body plumage, while already being light in colour and non-sexually dimorphic. The significance of these two (and other) characteristics shared by the Cacatuinae had previously been explained away in earlier studies by strict application of parsimony on misinterpreted data. [ clarify ]

Subspecies Edit

Three subspecies are usually recognised. Slight variation exists in the colours of the plumage and in the extent of the carunculation of the eye rings among the three subspecies. The south-eastern form, E. r. albiceps, is clearly distinct from the paler-bodied Western Australian nominate subspecies, E. r. roseicapilla, although the extent and nature of the central hybrid zone remains undefined. Most pet birds outside Australia are the south-eastern form. The third form, E. r. kuhli, found right across the northern part of the continent, tends to be a little smaller and is distinguished by differences in the shape and colour of the crest, although its status as a valid subspecies is uncertain.

The galah is often found in flocks of 10 to 1,000 individuals. These can be mixed flocks, the members of which may include Major Mitchell's cockatoo, the little corella, and the sulphur-crested cockatoo. The galah readily hybridizes with all of these species (see below). [10] Flocks of galahs often congregate and forage on the ground for food in open, grassy areas. Flocks of independent juvenile galahs will often disperse from their birth flock haphazardly. The galah feeds on seeds gathered on the ground, mainly feeding in the morning and late afternoon. Idly, it will strip leaves and barks from trees, and large flocks have been observed to kill trees through defoliation. [9]

The galah nests in tree cavities. The eggs are white, usually two to five in a clutch. The eggs are incubated for about 25 days, and the male and female share the incubation. The chicks leave the nest about 49 days after hatching. [11]

Living in captivity, galahs have been recorded reaching up to 72 years of age [12] when a good-quality diet is strictly followed. They socialise adequately and can engage playfully in entertainment activities to support the overall very intelligent nature of the bird. In their natural habitat, galahs are unlikely to reach the age of 20 years, falling victim to traffic, predators such as the little eagle and black and peregrine falcons, and human activities in some agricultural areas. Like most other cockatoos, galahs create strong, lifelong bonds with their partners.

The galah readily hybridizes with several species, including the sulphur-crested cockatoo, little corella, Major Mitchell's cockatoo, and the cockatiel. Galah x cockatiel hybrids are often referred to as "galatiels". [13] Aviary-bred hybrids of galah x Major Mitchell's cockatoo have been bred in Sydney, with the tapered wings of the galah and the crest and colours of the Major Mitchell's, as well as the plaintive cry of the latter.

The galah is very common as a companion parrot or avicultural specimen around the world, although generally absent from Australian aviaries. [14] When tame, it can be an affectionate and friendly bird that can learn to talk, as well as mimic other sounds heard in its environment. While it is a noisy bird that may be unsuitable for apartment living, it is comparatively quieter than other cockatoo species. Like most parrots, the galah requires plenty of exercise and play time out of its cage as well as several hours of daily social interaction with humans or other birds in order to thrive in captivity. It may also be prone to obesity if not provided with a suitable, nutritionally-balanced diet. [15] The World Parrot Trust recommends that captive galahs should be kept in an aviary with a minimum length of 7 metres. [16]

The breeding requirements include the use upright or tilted logs with a hollow some twenty to thirty centimetres in diameter. Sand and finer grades of wood material are used to construct their nest, the availability of eucalypt leaves for the nest lining is also suggested for captive breeding. [14]

"Galah" is also derogatory Australian slang, synonymous with 'fool', 'clown' or 'idiot'. [17] Because of the bird's distinctive bright pink colour, it is also used for gaudy dress. A detailed description of the Australian slang term can be found in the standup comedy performance of Paul Hogan, titled Stand Up Hoges. Another famous user of the slang "galah" is Alf Stewart from Home and Away, who is often heard saying "Flaming galah!" when he is riled by somebody.

The Australian representative team of footballers that played a series of test matches of international rules football against Irish sides in the late 1960s adopted the nickname "The Galahs" after a disparaging reference to their uniform. [18]

Angry Birds includes a pink bird named Stella who is intended to be based on a Galah.


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Birds and Animals of Australia's Top End: Darwin, Kakadu, Katherine, and Kununurra

One of the most amazing and accessible wildlife-watching destinations on earth, the “Top End” of Australia’s Northern Territory is home to incredible birds and animals—from gaudy Red-collared Lorikeets to sinister Estuarine Crocodiles and raucous Black Flying-foxes. With this lavishly illustrated photographic field guide, you will be able to identify the most common creatures and learn about their fascinating biology—from how Agile Wallaby mothers can pause their pregnancies to why Giant Frogs spend half the year buried underground in waterproof cocoons.

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Identification of a Kakadu bird - Biology

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Monitoring indicates greater resilience for birds than for mammals in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia

J. C. Z. Woinarski, 1,2,3,* A. Fisher, 1,2 M. Armstrong, 1,4 K. Brennan, 1 A. D. Griffiths, 1 B. Hill, 1 J. Low Choy, 1 D. Milne, 1 A. Stewart, 1,3 S. Young, 1 S. Ward, 1 S. Winderlich, 5 M. Ziembicki 1,6

1 ADepartment of Natural Resources Environment, The Arts and Sport, PO Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0831, A
2 BNational Environmental Research Program North Australian Hub, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT
3 CResearch Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909,
4 FPresent address: PO Box 429, Yandina, Qld 4561, Australia.
5 DKakadu National Park, PO Box 71, Jabiru, NT 0886, Australia.
6 GPresent address: School of Tropical and Marine Biology, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns,

* Corresponding author. Email: [email protected]

Includes PDF & HTML, when available

This article is only available to subscribers.
It is not available for individual sale.

Context. A previous study reported major declines for native mammal species from Kakadu National Park, over the period 2001–09. The extent to which this result may be symptomatic of more pervasive biodiversity decline was unknown.

Aims. Our primary aim was to describe trends in the abundance of birds in Kakadu over the period 2001–09. We assessed whether any change in bird abundance was related to the arrival of invading cane toads (Rhinella marina), and to fire regimes.

Methods. Birds were monitored at 136 1-ha plots in Kakadu, during the period 2001–04 and again in 2007–09. This program complemented sampling of the same plots over the same period for native mammals.

Key results. In contrast to the decline reported for native mammals, the richness and total abundance of birds increased over this period, and far more individual bird species increased than decreased. Fire history in the between-sampling period had little influence on trends for individual species. Interpretation of the overall positive trends for bird species in Kakadu over this period should be tempered by recognition that most of the threatened bird species present in Kakadu were unrecorded in this monitoring program, and the two threatened species for which there were sufficient records to assess trends – partridge pigeon (Geophaps smithii) and white-throated grass-wren (Amytornis woodwardi) – both declined significantly.

Conclusions.The current decline of the mammal fauna in this region is not reflected in trends for the region’s bird fauna. Some of the observed changes (mostly increases) in the abundance of bird species may be due to the arrival of cane toads, and some may be due to local or regional-scale climatic variation or variation in the amount of flowering. The present study provides no assurance about threatened bird species, given that most were inadequately recorded in the study (perhaps because their decline pre-dated the present study).

Implications. These contrasting trends between mammals and birds demonstrate the need for biodiversity monitoring programs to be broadly based. The declines of two threatened bird species over this period indicate the need for more management focus for these species.


References

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Andersen, A. N., Cook, G. D., Corbett, L. K., Douglas, M. M., Eager, R. W., Russell-Smith, J., Setterfield, S. A., Williams, R. J., and Woinarski, J. C. Z. (2005 ). Fire frequency and biodiversity conservation in Australian tropical savannas: implications from the Kapalga fire experiment. Austral Ecology 30, 155&ndash167.
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