Preface and Acknowledgments - Biology

Preface and Acknowledgments - Biology

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This book is dedicated to the students of Butte College and worldwide. The Biology Department faculty at Butte College have created this book as part of our effort to help make education more affordable. Our goal was to create a book that helps students understand how human systems function and how humans fit into the world around us.

In a few chapters, we have incorporated more inclusive gender-neutral pronouns, such as singular they/their/them. Around 1795, the language authorities Lindley Murray, Joseph Priestly, and Hugh Blair, amongst others, campaigned against pronoun irregularities in pronoun use, such as lack of agreement in gender and number. Without coining words, this can only be done in the third-person singular by use of compound terms like “his or her”. Grammarians in 1879, 1922, 1931, 1957, and the 1970s have accepted “they” as a singular term that could be used in place of “he” or “he or she,” though sometimes limiting it to informal constructions. Others in 1795, 1825, 1863, 1898, 1926, and 1982 argued against it for various reasons. And whatever the grammarians might argue, people have been using the singular “they” for about the last 600 years, though (as mentioned earlier) it can only be applied in certain cases. If new gender-neutral pronouns are not adopted, we are sure that singular “they” will still be a point of contention for centuries to come. For further information on the use of singular “they/them/their” throughout the centuries, see the large body of information that Henry Churchyard has compiled on this subject (LGBTQ+ Resource center; July 2020).

We wish the very best for all our students as they move forward in their goals!

Reference: Gender Pronouns; Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer Plus (LGBTQ+) Resource Center; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; accessed on July 8, 2020, CC BY-NC


Biology is a field that has many new vocabulary terms. These are bolded throughout the text. Students are encouraged to create flashcards or use other strategies to learn these terms. Knowing the vocabulary terms in a chapter will help make the content easier to understand.


Technical support: Libraries, UC Davis

This project could not have been possible without the voluminous support of Dr. Delmar Larsen and Henry Agnew. They helped us overcome many technical difficulties during the creation of this book.

Award number 54 (2019)

Award number 207 (2020)

Content support: CK-12 foundation and Openstax

This book is a product of a curation of the OER content from many sources. Butte College Biology Department thanks the following authors:

  • Barbara Akre
  • Dana Desonie
  • Douglas Wilkin
  • Dr. Katherine Harris
  • Jean Brainard
  • Jessica Harwood
  • Laura Guerin
  • Lensyl Urbano
  • Marcos Gridi-Papp
  • Milton Huling Ph.D.
  • Niamh Gray-Wilson
  • Rachel Henderson

Preface and Acknowledgments

The following book grew out of a 2010 Fulbright Fellowship proposal by Eileen Gardiner for teaching digital humanities to undergraduates and graduate students at the National University of Ireland, Galway. The proposal was successful, but another challenge presented itself – taking on the executive directorship of the Medieval Academy of America – so that pedagogical plan was transformed into a book that we hope will guide and benefit more than the original several dozen students.

This book also derives significantly from our many years as both scholars and publishers. In 1993, at our own Italica Press, we had published some of the first e-books for scholars, including The Marvels of Rome for the Macintosh , an early digital (HyperCard) edition of the celebrated medieval guide to the city, one of the earliest electronic books produced. We also draw on our twelve years at the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) where we took over leadership of an electronic publishing project shortly after it was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The ACLS History E-Book Project, later ACLS Humanities E-Book (HEB), was a forward-looking project in 1999, with the goal of publishing approximately eighty-five new digital monographs in history, adding a substantial digital backlist, incorporating the insights from the digital realm and pushing the boundaries of scholarly communication in the humanities. When we left HEB in 2011, it had published nearly four thousand e-books, including a large backlist of print-first titles converted into digital format and more than one hundred new titles that ranged from born-digital projects to enhanced digital monographs featuring sound, image libraries, video, virtual reality, archival databases and other external resources.

During our time at ACLS, we had the opportunity to add to our own publishing experiences by engaging with scholars from a variety of humanities disciplines who were pioneers in the emerging field of what only later would begin to be called the “digital humanities.”


The application of biological principles to practical human concerns is now widely accepted as a suitable approach to the study of biology because it fulfills a great need. All students should leave college with a firm grasp of how their bodies normally function, and how the human population can become more fully integrated into the biosphere.
We are frequently called upon to make health and environmental decisions. Wise decisions require adequate knowledge and can help assure our continued survival as individuals and as a species.

In this edition, as in previous editions, each chapter presents the topic clearly, simply, and distinctly so that students will feel capable of achieving an adult level of understanding. Detailed, high-level scientific data and terminology are not included because I believe that true knowledge consists of working concepts rather than technical facility.

Human Biology excels in pedagogical features. Each chapter begins with an integrated chapter outline that lists the chapter's concepts according to numbered sections of the chapter. This numbering system is continued in the chapter and summary so that instructors can assign just certain portions of the chapter, if they like.

The text is paged so that major sections start at the top of the page and illustrations are on the same or facing page to their reference. The illustrations are visually motivating, and the art program has many features that students will find helpful. Color coordination includes assigning colors to the various classes of organic molecules and to the different human tissues and organs. Visual focus illustrations give a conceptual overview that relates structure to function.

The questions at the end of the chapter are of both the essay and objective type. Studying the Concepts reviews the content of the chapter and requires that students write out their answers. Testing Your Knowledge of the Concepts includes multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks, and true-false questions. Understanding Key Terms lists the major terms in the chapter and page references the term to where it is defined in the chapter.

Every chapter in Human Biology has been revised or is new. The systems chapters have been fine-tuned and the illustrations in these chapters have been improved to better present the concepts. Students should have no difficulty in following the text, understanding the concepts, and applying them to their everyday lives.

Part VII of the text contains new chapters. Students learn best when the content applies to themselves, and these chapters are faithful to this educational maxim. Chapter 23 is now entitled "Human Evolution." This unique chapter teaches the principles of evolution, while at the same time reviewing human evolution from the origin of the first cell(s) to the rise of modern humans. Chapter 24, which is called "Ecosystems and Human Interferences" introduces the basics of ecology and shows how human activities have altered biogeochemical cycles to our own detriment. Chapter 25 is a new chapter entitled "Conservation of Biodiversity." We all need to be aware that other living things are valuable to the human species and to recognize that our activities threaten their very existence. In preserving other species we are ultimately preserving our own species.

Health and ecological concerns are carried through the text by Health Focus readings, which help students cope with common health problems, and Ecology Focus readings, which draw attention to a particular environmental problem.

As in the previous edition, students are asked to apply the concepts to the many and varied perplexing bioethical issues that face us every day. In this edition, each bioethical issue is featured in a Bioethical Focus box which asks students to develop a point of view by answering a series of questions on such topics as genetic disease testing, modern reproductive technologies, human cloning, AIDS vaccine trials, animal rights, and fetal research. The Online Learning Center will help students fine-tune their opinion with these activities:

Taking Sides. Students answer a series of questions and their answers are tallied so that their original position is revealed.

Further Debate. Students are directed to read articles on both sides of the issue.

Explain Your Position. Students are asked to defend their position in writing. They can e-mail their essay to their professor.

This edition of Human Biology again places an emphasis on homeostasis. An icons calls attention to those portions of each chapter that discuss homeostasis.The chapter entitled "Organization and Regulation of Body Systems" discusses the principles of homeostasis and the contributions of the various systems to keeping the internal environment relatively constant. Well-designed illustrations, especially in the endocrine chapter, show how negative feedback control is essential to homeostasis. The Human Systems Work Together box in each systems chapter describes how that organ system works with other systems to achieve homeostasis.

Each chapter begins with a short story that applies chapter material to real-life situations. The readings stress applications and so does the running text material. This edition features expanded treatment of such topics as eating disorders, allergies, pulmonary disorders, hepatitis infections, modern reproductive technologies, the human genome project, and gene therapy. Other topics such as the cloning of humans and xenotransplantation are also included.

There are many resources that students can utilize in order to understand the content of this textbook. In addition to the end of the chapter questions and printed study guide, the Online Learning Center at contains readings, quizzes, animations, and other activities to help students master the concepts. New to this edition there is more integration between text material and technology. For example, Bioethical Focus boxes and Human Systems Work Together boxes have an associated online exercise that helps students make better use of these stimulating features.

Also, new to this edition, each chapter ends with an
e-Learning Connection page. This page organizes the relevant technological material by major sections, helping to create a stronger association between available study activities and text material. Because this design is mimicked on the Online Learning Center the student can now easily find the appropriate learning experience.

A complete explanation of the technology package available with this textbook for students and instructors, is explained fully on pages xvi through xx of the preface.

To produce a text requires a concerted effort by many and it is a pleasure to thank everyone who made this edition of Human Biology so special. My editor Patrick Reidy and my developmental editor Anne Melde fulfilled every expectation. They planned well and supplied creativity, advice, and support whenever it was needed.

Jayne Klein, the project manager, although new to the book team, stepped right in and made the project move along smoothly. Kennie Harris did a superb job as the copy editor Lori Hancock and Connie Mueller found just the right photographs. Again, Wayne Harms developed a design that is both beautiful and useful to students.

In my office Jo Hebert has consistently provided support and was just as diligent working on this edition as the others. I also want to take this opportunity to thank my husband and children for their continual patience and encouragement.

Many instructors have contributed not only to this edition of Human Biology but also to previous editions. I am extremely thankful to each one, for they have all worked diligently to remain true to our calling to provide a product that will be the most useful to our students.

It is appropriate to acknowledge the help of the following individuals for the seventh edition.

David H. Arnold University of Texas-Austin
Amir M. Assadi-Rad San Joaquin Delta College
Ellen Baker Santa Monica College
Linda M. Banta Sierra College
Angela Bauer-Dantoin University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Cindy Beck The Evergreen State College
George C. Boone Susquehanna University
Judith Byrnes-Enoch SUNY - Empire State College
Judson J. Calhoun Mohave Community College
Joseph P. Caruso University of the South
Debra Chapman Wilkes University
Richard Connett Monroe Community College
David Constantinos Savannah State University
Charles J. Dick Pasco-Hernando Community College
Marirose T. Ethington Genesee Community College
Richard H. Falk University of California-Davis
Steve Fields Winthrop University
Dalia Giedrimiene Saint Joseph College
Mary Louise Greeley Salve Regina University
Kenneth W. Gregg Winthrop University
Ryan M. Harden Central Lakes College
Janice L. Haws Delaware Valley College
Chris G. Haynes Shelton State Community College
Danette I. Haynes Shelton State Community College
Clare Hays Metropolitan State College of Denver
Janice Ito Leeward Community College
Dennis Jackson Mount Aloysius College
Pushkar N. Kaul Clark Atlantic University
Suzanne Kempke Armstrong Atlantic State University
Michelle Kettler University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Patricia Klopfenstein Edison Community College
Troy A. Ladine Bethel College
Thomas M. Lancraft St. Petersburg Junior College
Michael Lentz University of North Florida
Mary Katherine K. Lockwood University of New Hampshire
William J. Mackay Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Morris V. Maniscalco LeTourneau University
Joseph A. Mannino University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Vicki J. Martin Appalachian State University
Patricia Matthews Grand Valley State University
Elizabeth McMahon Warren County Community College
Tekie Mehary University of Washington
William Millington Albany College of Pharmacy of Union University
Aaron J. Moe Concordia University
Michele Morek Brescia University
Robert A. Morgan Southwestern University
Richard Mortensen Albion College
Don Naber University College, University of Maine
Jon R. New Vernon Regional Junior College
Emily C. Oaks SUNY at Oswego
Richard O'Lander St. John's University
Sidney L. Palmer Ricks College
Jeff Parmelee Simpson College
Mason Posner Ashland University
Darryl Ritter Okaloosa-Walton Community College
Connie Rizzo Pace University
Michael W. Ruhl Vernon Regional Junior College
Mary Ellen St. John Central Ohio Technical College
Don Sanders Harding Academy of Memphis
Soma Sanyal Penn State Altoona College
John W. Sherman Erie Community College-North Campus
Kristin Siewert Des Moines Area Community College at Newton
Jeff S. Simpson Metropolitan State College of Denver
Timothy A. Stabler Indiana University Northwest
W. Robert Stamper Muhlenberg College
Steve K. Stocking San Joaquin Delta Community College
Robert S. Sullivan Marist College
Jacqueline Tanaka University of Pennsylvania
William J. Tarutis, Jr. Lackawanna Junior College
Kent R. Thomas Wichita State University
Timothy S. Wakefield Auburn University
Curt Walker Dixie State College
Rod Waltermyer York College of Pennsylvania
Linda Wells California State University-Bakersfield
Frank P. Wray University of Cincinnati
Joyce A. Wren Surry Community College
Kathryn Yarkany Villa Julie College
Martin D. Zahn Thomas Nelson Community College
Nina C. Zanetti Siena College
Henry H. Ziller Southeastern Louisiana University
Brenda Zink Northeastern Junior College

Part VII contains new chapters. "Human Evolution" traces human evolution from the origin of cell(s) to the evolution of modern humans. This unique chapter presents the principles of evolution, while at the same time reviewing human evolution. "Ecosystems and Human Interferences" presents the principles of ecology and shows how human activities disrupt biogeochemical cycles, leading to untoward effects including pollution. "Conservation of Biodiversity" explores the current biodiversity crisis and shows how the loss of so many species can be detrimental to humankind.

Technology aids are organized according to the major sections on the e-Learning Connection page found at the end of each chapter. Students can easily determine the available resources to help explain difficult concepts. The same design is utilized for the Online Learning Center, so that students can quickly find an activity of interest. Other activities help students make full use of the Bioethical Focus boxes and Human Systems Work Together boxes.

Relevancy of the text is enhanced due to the inclusion of such topics as sexually transmitted diseases, eating disorders, allergies, pulmonary disorders, hepatitis infections, xenotransplantation, modern reproductive technologies, human cloning, the human genome project, and gene therapy to treat cancer.

Health Focus and Ecology Focus readings support the two major themes of the text the study of human anatomy and physiology and the role of humans in the biosphere. A new Bioethical Focus box found throughout the text introduces students to many of the bioethical questions that face us every day. Challenging questions are provided that can be used as a basis for class discussion. The Online Learning Center allows students to further explore these issues by taking a quiz, reading articles, and writing an essay explaining their point of view.

The vibrant art program adds vitality to illustrations and enhances the appeal of the text. Micrographs are integrated into illustrations and provide realism. Visual focus illustrations give a pictorial overview of key topics. Color coding is used both for biological molecules and for human tissues and organs.

Homeostasis is again emphasized in this edition. An icons calls attention to those portions of the text that discuss homeostasis. Each systems chapter has a major section that discusses how that system works with other systems of the body to achieve homeostasis. This section is supported by a Human Systems Work Together box, which also shows how that organ system works with the other systems making homeostasis possible.

The learning System
Each chapter in Human Biology is constructed of basic features that serve as the pedagogical framework for the chapter. Before you begin reading the text, spend a little time looking over these pages. They provide a quick guide to the learning tools found throughout the text that have been designed to enhance your understanding of biology.

The chapter begins with an integrated outline that numbers the major sections of the chapter and lists the concepts that support each section.

Human Biology emphasizes homeostasis through Working Together boxes, separate discussion in each human system chapter, and through the use of an icons. The homeostasis icon has been placed adjacent to text material that discusses homeostasis.

Internal Summary Statements

Internal summaries stress the chapter's key concepts. These appear at the ends of major sections and help focus students' study efforts on the most important concepts.

Summarizing the Concepts

The numbered concepts, introduced on the chapter-opening page and explained in the body of the chapter, form the basis for the summary. This repetition helps reinforce key concepts for the student. Studying the Concepts

This page-referenced question set reviews the concepts presented in the chapter. Understanding Key Terms

Key terms are listed with page references that indicate where the term is defined in the chapter. Testing Your Knowledge of the Concepts

This section consists of objective questions that test the student's ability to answer recall-based questions. Answers to these questions are given in Appendix A.

Integrated Technology for students
Technology has become an increasingly potent force in teaching and learning. For that reason the seventh edition of Human Biology puts an even greater emphasis on technology by integrating it more fully with text material. Students can access the material described on these pages by going to

Bioethical Focus Boxes

The popular Bioethical Focus boxes introduced in the sixth edition have now been expanded into a full page feature. To help students further explore the complicated issues discussed in the Bioethical Focus boxes, an online feature called Looking at Both Sides has been added. Students go to the Online Learning Center where they find the following activities:

Taking Sides is a short quiz that helps students decide which side of the issue they identify with at the outset.

Further Debate facilitates the students' continued investigation of the issue by providing websites for further study. Students are asked questions that help them analyze the information and arguments provided.

Explain Your Position requires that students express and defend their position in writing. Responses can be e-mailed to the instructor if he or she wishes.Human Systems Work Together Boxes

These helpful boxes were developed to illustrate for students how the systems in their own bodies are working together to achieve homeostasis. An online component has been developed to further emphasize this vital concept:

Systems Scramble is a matching exercise based on the Human Systems Work Together box.

Watch It Happen shows the student an animation of a process occurring in the highlighted system.

Systems Review follows up the animation with questions that require students to integrate what they have learned about the body systems.

These pages, found at the end of each chapter, tie technology directly to the major sections found within the chapter. Students are shown which McGraw-Hill study aids are available on the Online Learning Center to help them understand the concepts in each section. An icon tells the student at a glance what type of resource is being cited.

Online Learning Center

The e-Learning Connection page is duplicated on the Online Learning Center where it serves as navigation for the online chapter content. The student need only click on a link to go to the resource that is listed. This helps students find the information they need more quickly, increasing the effectiveness of their study time. Go to to see the many resources available for students on the Human Biology Online Learning Center.

These icons are used on the e-Learning Connection page and the Online Learning Center to denote types of content.

ActivityActivities are hands-on exercises that engage students in a learning experience.

AnimationAnimations help students visualize how a process occurs.

Essential StudyModules combine text screens and Partner Moduleactivities to help students master difficult concepts.

ReadingReadings give students the opportunity to explore a topic further.

QuizQuizzes allow students to test themselves on the topics presented in the chapter.

Technology for the instructor
Increasingly, instructors are demanding visual resources and the versatility to use them according to their needs. By adopting Human Biology for use in their course, instructors gain access to technological resources that can revolutionize the way information is presented to their students.

Incredible Online Resources

At the Human Biology Online Learning Center, you will have access to images from the textbook, case studies, chapter outlines, the Instructor's Manual, and text-specific PowerPoint presentations. is a new resource for instructors using a McGraw-Hill textbook in their course. offers instructors over 10,000 images, animations, and case studies for use in their course. Visitors to can check out the latest science headlines, read commentaries from McGraw-Hill authors and guests, take part in discussion boards, find relevant materials for lab courses, and much more.

Wake Up Your Lectures

Create dynamic PowerPoint presentations using art from the Human Biology textbook. Approximately 800 labeled and unlabeled images, including all of the illustrations and photos from the text, are available for your use on CD-ROM or by using the Human Biology Online Learning Center. The Visual Resource Library allows you to search and sort through a catalog of images by chapter, or by using keywords, and then place the images into your own lecture notes.

Human Biology
Visual Resource Library CD-ROM

Life Science Animations
Visual Resource Library CD-ROM

The Life Science Animations 2.0 CD-ROM contains over 300 animations of complex biological processes. Help your students visualize the mechanisms at work within their own cells by incorporating these animations into your lecture presentations. Step-by-step instructions are provided to help you get the most out of this powerful resource.

Need a Course Website?

PageOut&trade makes it easy to provide class materials online by creating your own course website. Using PageOut&trade you can post an interactive syllabus containing class notes, practice exercises, helpful figures, and links to relevant McGraw-Hill web content. Student registration and grade book features assist with course management.

If your time is limited you can simply copy a site from the McGraw-Hill PageOut&trade library, or let the McGraw-Hill service team do the work for you. They will call you for a 30-minute consultation, create your PageOut&trade website, and provide training to get you up and running.

For more information on PageOut & trade contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative or go to

You Can Have What You Want

Since 1990 Primis Custom Publishing has made it possible for instructors to create their ideal textbooks. Now, in addition to printed texts, Primis custom textbooks can be made available to your students online as eBooks.

Select from over 35,000 pages of online content, then move, add, or delete materials until you are happy with your text. Once you submit your new book to the eBookstore, your students only need to go to the site to buy their download of the text. By adding a link to the eBookstore from your PageOut&trade website, students have everything they need for your course in one place. Best of all, your students save money since they are only paying for the content you choose to include in the course textbook.

To find out more about customizing Human Biology or any other McGraw-Hill text please contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative or visit

New TechnologyNew Technology

Human Biology Online Learning Center

McGraw-Hill text-specific websites allow students and instructors from all over the world to communicate. By visiting this site, students can access additional study aids, including quizzes and animations, explore links to other relevant biology sites, and catch up on current information. Log on today! provides a comprehensive set of resources in one place that is up-to-date and easy to navigate. Here is what you will find:

•The Faculty Club includes teaching tips, classroom activi-ties, reference searches, presentation tools, and much more.

•The Student Center contains a wide range of materials to help biology students improve their study skills and achieve success in college and beyond.

•The Briefing Room offers instructors and students up-to-date news articles, a selection of background readings, and links to journal search tools and biology magazines.

•BioLabs features materials for lab students and instructors, including equipment tutorials, lab support, and simulations.

•The Quad is a powerful indexing tool and heirarchical outline of content resources for searching by students and faculty.

• The R & D Center features our newest simulations, animations, and other teaching tools.

Now it is incredibly easy to create a content-rich textbook or lab manual tailored to your exact needs. Choose from our library of content, your materials, or both. Your customized course materials are delivered to your students immediately in color, online, and at a substantial savings. Customization allows you to tailor your classroom tools to meet your course needs, follow your syllabus, and teach like you do. All you need to do is log on to and go to your discipline area. Simply view, select, review, and submit. Students can then easily and conveniently access the site on the Internet, reference their school and course, and purchase their "e-Book" online. Immediately, the electronic book is downloaded to their computer's hard drive.

Put together your own customized website with the use of PageOut&trade, a program designed specifically for instructors wanting to put course information on the web. No experience in web publishing is necessary just choose from a collection of templates to create your class website.

Visual Resource Library CD-ROM

This helpful CD-ROM contains approximately 800 images, including all of the photos and line art from the text, that can be easily imported into PowerPoint to create multimedia presentations. Or, you may use the already prepared PowerPoint presentations.

Life Science Animations CD-ROM 2.0

This two CD-ROM set contains more than 200 animations of important biological concepts and processes. These animations can be imported into your PowerPoint presentations.

Life Science Animations Videotape Series

Animations of key biological processes are available on seven videotapes. The animations bring visual movement to biological processes that are difficult to understand on the text page.

Classroom Testing Software (MicroTest III)

This helpful testing software provides well-written and researched book-specific questions featured in the Test Item File.

Microbes in Motion CD-ROM, Version 2.0, by Delisle and Tomalty

This interactive CD-ROM allows students to actively explore microbial structure and function. Great for self-study, preparation for class or exams, or for classroom presentations.

The Dynamic Human CD-ROM,
Version 2.0

This guide to anatomy and physiology interactively illustrates the complex relationships between anatomical structures and their functions in the human body. Realistic, three-dimensional visuals are the premier feature of this exciting learning tool.

Dynamic Human Videodisc

Enhance your classroom presentations with movement, sound, and motion of internal organs, cells, and systems. More than 80 premier 3-D animations covering all body systems from the outstanding Dynamic Human CD-ROM are included.

Other Available Supplements

The Instructor's Manual is designed to assist instructors as they plan and prepare for classes using Human Biology. The Instructor's Manual contains both an extended lecture outline and lecture enrichment ideas, which together review in detail the contents of the text chapter. The technology section lists relevant assets from McGraw-Hill.

To ensure close coordination with the text, Dr. Sylvia S. Mader has written the Student Study Guide that accompanies the text. Each text chapter has a corresponding study guide chapter that includes a listing of objectives, study questions, and a chapter test. Answers to the study questions and the chapter tests are provided to give students immediate feedback.

The concepts in the study guide are the same as those in the text, and the questions in the study guide are sequenced according to these concepts. Instructors who make their choice of concepts known to the students can thereby direct student learning in an efficient manner. Students who make use of the Student Study Guide should find that performance increases dramatically.

Dr. Mader has also written the Laboratory Manual to accompany Human Biology. With few exceptions, each chapter in the text has an accompanying laboratory exercise in the manual (some chapters have more than one accompanying exercise). In this way, instructors are better able to emphasize particular portions of the curriculum. The 19 laboratory sessions in the manual are designed to further help students appreciate the scientific method and to learn the fundamental concepts of biology and the specific content of each chapter. All exercises have been tested for student interest, preparation time, and feasibility. This lab manual can be customized to fit your lab course. Contact your McGraw-Hill representative for details.

This set of transparency acetates to accompany the text has been expanded to 400 full-color acetates, including all of the art from the textbook.

This ancillary provides a boxed set of 100 color slides of

photomicrographs and electron micrographs from the text.

ISBN 0-07-039335-4 (Macintosh)

Virtual Biology Laboratory CD-ROM

Life Science Living Lexicon CD-ROM

How to Study Science, Third Edition, by Fred Drewes

Basic Chemistry for Biology, Second Edition,

Understanding Evolution, by Volpe and Rosenbaum

AIDS Booklet, by Frank Cox

Critical Thinking Case Study Workbook, by Robert Allen

How Scientists Think, by George Johnson

To order any of these study tools, contact your bookstore manager or call McGraw-Hill Customer Service at 800-338-3987.
The number one source for your biology course. is an electronic meeting place for students and instructors. It provides a comprehensive set of resources in one place that is up-to-date and easy to navigate. You can access from Human Biology's Online Learning Center.Here is what you will find at is an array of information and links to related sites for instructors. Resources that you will find include:

•Teaching tips and basic information on pedagogy, assessment, etc.

•Suggestions for classroom and lecture activities.

•Reference searches and literature for faculty.

•Help for new instructors and teaching assistants.

•Information on available jobs, grant writing, and available funding.

•Case studies. features materials for lab students and instructors. Some tools you will find include:

•Safety and setup procedures.

•Simulations.BioLabsFaculty Club is a powerful indexing tool and hierarchical outline of content resources for searching by students and faculty. Users can search by topic through a "content warehouse" featuring text material, activities, visuals, and animations to learn more about a selected topic. The Quad contains a wide range of materials to help biology students improve their study skills and achieve success in college and beyond. Examples of materials that will be available:

•Résumé writing and information on jobs and internships.

•Information for MCAT and other tests.

•Links to content websites by topic. Student Center features our newest simulations, animations, and other teaching and learning tools. This portion of our site will allow faculty members and students to try out our materials as they are being developed. R & D Center offers instructors and students up-to-date news articles, a selection of background readings and links to journal search tools and biology magazines. Users can e-mail articles to others, link to search engines, and read primary sources online. Briefing Room Contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for more information

Proven. Reliable. Class-tested.

Tens of thousands of professors have chosen PageOut to create course websites. And for good reason: PageOut offers powerful features, yet is incredibly easy to use.

Now you can be the first to use an even better version of PageOut. Through class-testing and customer feedback, we have made key improvements to the grade book, as well as the quizzing and discussion areas. Customize the site to coincide with your lectures.Complete the PageOut templates with your course information and you will have an interactive syllabus online. This feature lets you post content to coincide with your lectures. When students visit your PageOut website, your syllabus will direct them to components of McGraw-Hill web content germane to your text or specific material of your own.Short on time? Let us do the work.New Features:

•Specific question selection for quizzes.

•Ability to copy your course and share it with colleagues or use as a foundation for a new semester.

•Enhanced grade book with reporting features.

•Ability to use the PageOut discussion area, or add your own third-party discussion tool.

The Faith of Biology and the Biology of Faith

Are there parallels between the "moment of insight" in science and the emergence of the "unknowable" in religious faith? Where does scientific insight come from? Award-winning biologist Robert Pollack argues that an alliance between religious faith and science is not necessarily an argument in favor of irrationality: the two can inform each other's visions of the world.

Pollack begins by reflecting on the large questions of meaning and purpose—and the difficulty of finding either in the orderly world described by the data of science. He considers the obligation to find meaning and purpose despite natural selection's claim to be a complete explanation of our presence as a species—a claim that calls upon neither natural intention, nor design, nor Designer. Next, the book focuses on matters of free will, from the choice of a scientist to accept evidence, to the choice of a religious person to accept a revelation, to a patient's loss of free will in medical treatment. Here Pollack addresses questions of ethics and offers a provocative comparison of two difficult texts whose contents remain incompletely understood: the DNA "text" of the human genome and the Hebrew record of Jewish written and oral law. In closing, Pollack considers the promise of genetic medicine in enabling us to glimpse our own future and offers a reconsideration of the possible utility of the so-called placebo effect in curing illness.

Whether refuting a DNA-based biological model of Judaism or discussing the Darwinian concept of the species, Pollack, under the banner of free inquiry, presents a genuine, vital, and well-argued assay of the intersection of science and religion.

Preface and Acknowledgments

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Jessica Amato, Napa Valley College

Lindsay Barone, DNA Learning Center

Lisa Becker, Anoka Ramsey Community College

James Bindon, The University of Alabama

Samantha Blatt, Idaho State University

Nina Brown, The Community College of Baltimore County

Jennifer Byrnes, University of Hawai’i – West O’ahu

Keith Chan, Grossmont College

Shannon Clinkinbeard, Sierra College and California State University, Chico

Victoria Clow, Dallas County Community College District

Katherine Fernandez, Wichita State University

Monique Fortunato, Cosumnes River College

Davette Gadison, Tulane University

Sydney Garcia, San Diego Museum of Man

Justin Garcia, Millersville University of Pennsylvania

Kimberly Garza, University of Illinois at Chicago

Rebecca Gilmour, McMaster University

Laura Tubelle de Gonzalez, Miramar College

Kaitlin Hakanson, Klamath Community College

Carol Hayman, Austin Community College

Maureen Hickey, Los Angeles Mission College

Angela Jenks, University of California, Irvine

Alexandra Klales, Washburn University

Winsome Lee, Kenyon International Emergency Services

Chris Maier, Eckerd College

Katherine McElvaney, University of Houston

Tad McIlwraith, University of Guelph

Cara Monroe, University of Oklahoma

Matthew O’Brien, California State University, Chico

Kathryn Olszowy, New Mexico State University

Carolyn Orbann, University of Missouri

Tanusree Pandit, Panjab University, Educational Institution, Chandigarh

Amanda Paskey, Cosumnes River College

Betsy Abrams Rich, Los Angeles Valley College and Santa Monica College

Benjamin Schaefer, Georgia State University

Arnie Schoenberg, San Diego City College

Laure Spake, Simon Fraser University

Jay VanderVeen, Indiana University South Bend

Marco Vidal Cordasco, National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH)

Sandra Wheeler, University of Central Florida

Kyleb Wild, Grossmont College

Marlo Willows, Palomar College

Kristin Wilson, Cabrillo College

Katrina Worley, American River College

Heather Worne, University of Kentucky

Bonnie Yoshida-Levine, Grossmont College

Aaron Young, University of Arizona

Melissa Zolnierz, Kansas City University

Guidelines for Writing Preface for Project Work:

1. Give the description of the project:

The preface is about describing what the context of the project is, all in general lines. You need to tell the readers what is the main idea behind the project work. While describing make sure you do not reveal too much about the project.

Leave some room for the mystery, so that the reader finds the mystery by going through the whole project inside.

2. It is the type of introduction:

The preface should be written in the manner you are writing an introduction, but by keeping in mind that the intro does not give the clear picture of the whole project. The project should be written in a short and precise manner so as just to give a gist of what is there inside the project.

3. Explain the reasons why you chose the specified topic for the project:

In this part you can explain the reasons why you chose a particular topic. What was the main idea behind and which factors forced you to take a complicated task, must be explained as it intrigues the readers and also arouse interest to go through the whole project. Whatever the project is, just make sure you give a good and real description of everything.

4. The purpose behind making such project:

The reason why you chose a topic should be explained in a detailed manner. The main reason and the purpose behind the making of the project must be described clearly in the task you took to complete.

5. The benefits one can get after reading the article:

You need to explain in the preface about the benefits the readers can get after going through the project. Also, you can write what is different from the project than other projects.

Only something different will make the readers go through the whole project but before that, one will read from the preface.

6. Refer to your target audience:

The preface must have one paragraph in which you explain about the target audience, the project is meant for. What kind of people you had in your mind while making the project, what queries you had in the mind while you prepared for such a project, must be given in the preface.

Also to make preface more appealing, you can add a few questions you had related to the project and also related to people you are targeting for the project.

7. Explain the reasons why you did the project:

The reasons like whether you were familiar with the topic, or you were interested in the topic, you longed to work on such project for very long or something like it was close to your heart due to domestic reasons, etc. can be detailed in the project.

Such things bring readers closer towards the project and certainly, they make an effort to experience the project through the reading. So, it is essential to pen down the reasons you did a particular project.

8. The assistance you received from different resources:

What kind of help, you took to complete the project? Like the resources, you made use of or the books you referred, the technologies you made use, websites, articles, blogs you read for completing the project must be mentioned.

By writing all such, the project becomes more authentic for the reader to believe and also the credibility of the project increases.

9. Talk about what inspired you:

What was your inspiration for doing such a project can also be mentioned in the preface. The source of your information needs to be told to the readers as the readers like to know all such things before they move ahead with reading of the project say it to be a book or any article, etc. It interest readers know the inspiration, the sources, the struggle you made to accomplish the project.

10. The time span you can mention:

How long you took to make the project can also be written down in the project. Also the reason why you took so long should be explained. Whether you took more time in research work or you were busy in some other work while doing the project can be mentioned in the record. This should be mentioned in a different paragraph. Do not mingle it with other paragraphs or don’t just give one-liner for it.

11. Explain how you feel about the work you did:

What you felt while doing the project, how this project helped in your knowledge, talk about what you have learned while you worked on the project. How it helped you as a human being and how the project will help the readers if they will go through the project work.

Writing the feeling in the preface is something that adds a personal feeling with the work. When the readers will read the preface, it will look quite interesting as more of personalized experience is explained that lures most of the readers.

12. Advise the readers:

What problems you faced while doing the project should also be mentioned along with the advice that should be given to the readers on what points they should keep in mind if they do something akin to this project.

Tell them the limitations of the resources you used and also give guidelines on how to take care while doing the project work.

13. The incidents, the experiences in the preface:

In the preface, pen down all the incidents you had gone through, along with the experiences you got. This makes the preface full of life and the readers will be interested to have a look into the project work.

14. Be thankful to all those who contributed:

You need to acknowledge all those who worked on the project. This is called attributing the sources, the people who helped you in the whole process. Expressing gratitude while you write the preface is something which helps people encourage and also it is included in the virtues needed for an individual. Not just this, it also lets people learn the value of the teamwork.

15. Write everything in paragraphs:

When you write the preface write in the paragraphs. Each paragraph should be different and should have something different. Do not write in an essay type format or it will make the preface look very dull and monotonous. So, write in short paragraphs. Do not repeat anything and write clearly.

Also Read:

16. Do not scribble the words:

When you write the preface, make sure you do not scribble while writing. Scribbling will only reduce the effectiveness of the preface and can give you assurance of reduced readability.

17. Write in short sentences:

Do not write long and complex sentences. The sentences you write should finish in one breath and should not be complex or compound in nature. The short sentences should say all as the complex and the compound sentences only create confusion in the mind of the readers.

18. Make no mistakes:

The initial page if will have a number of errors, then the value of the project will reduce to a larger extent as the first page puts the first impression and if the initial impression is not good, certainly there will not be any chances of moving ahead in the project by the reader.

So there must be no grammatical errors, no repetition of the words, no spelling mistakes, especially when you write the names of the people who contributed their efforts in completing the project.

Get the Free & Quick Proofreading tool by Grammarly! Instantly proofread your texts and correct grammar and punctuation.

19. Talk about the organization of the project work:

Which organization are you working for to make the project must also be mentioned in the preface. Write about the company or the organization in your project. You need to justify the efforts of everyone, every organization, even if the readers are not interested in reading about the company.

You can talk all when did your company started, what goals it has achieved, what more are about to come and also why the company chose such a project to put forward to the viewers or the readers.

20. Write everything steps wise:

Follow the steps while you write the preface. For example, first say about the company, initiating it with the name of the company, then its goals, the criteria it followed, then about yourself, why you selected such a topic to work on, then the efforts you made, all what you learned while making the project, thanking everyone who assisted you, and everything that you would like to share with the readers and the viewers of the project. Maybe something hidden is there that you want the public to know at a large scale, the preface is the right platform.

21. Give external information if you have received any:

You may have gathered different and external information while making the project. It is advisable to write down that too in the preface. One paragraph for the external information can add charm and glam to the preface as well as the project work.

22. Give the modules your project is divided into:

The modules mean the parts in which your project is divided. Your project may be divided into different parts and if it really is, then mention it in the preface. If you wish, also tell why you divided the project into the modules or the parts.

What you thought while doing the same and from where did you get the inspiration to work by dividing the content for the project.

23. Do not go very long:

You need not write essays while you write a preface. Just take care of the length and the word limit. The professional work is always sophisticated and looks royal, so you need to do the same to make the project look professional. Apparently, for that, you need to see the length and also the word limit.

24. Make use of good and soft words:

The words should neither to be too simple not be too technical, but soft words can do wonders. So, make sure you keep in mind the type of words you use while doing the project and especially writing the preface for the project.

25. Add some pictures:

Here the pictures are not of the celebrities, but of those people who contributed to the project. Along with their pictures, you can write down the designation, their achievements in a brief while thanking them for their dedicated efforts. Although the preface is all in written and makes the thing little boring, but the pictures can add some tint of interest in it, luring readers like a magnet towards the project.

Also, you can get the signatures of those people down the picture. Making use of the pictures, the signatures and the designation gives a professional touch to the work and indeed it is good to create impressions in the mind of the public.


In our own juvenile stage, many of us received our wide-eyed introduction to the wonders of nature by watching the metamorphosis of swimming tadpoles into leaping frogs and toads. The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as molecular systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology have focused enormous attention on tadpoles. Despite this popular and scientific interest, relatively little is known about these fascinating creatures.

In this indispensable reference, leading experts on tadpole biology relate what we currently know about tadpoles and what we might learn from them in the future. Tadpoles provides detailed summaries of tadpole morphology, development, behavior, ecology, and environmental physiology explores the evolutionary consequences of the tadpole stage synthesizes available information on their biodiversity and presents a standardized terminology and an exhaustive literature review of tadpole biology.

East African Great Lakes

East Africa represents a particular hotspot of cichlid diversity and the extremely species-rich flocks endemic to the East African Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria certainly represent the most spectacular vertebrate adaptive radiations (Turner et al., 2001 Koblmüller et al., 2008 Salzburger et al. 2014). Since the publication of the first reports on the East African fish faunas at the end of the nineteenth century (Boulenger, 1898, 1899a, b), the exceptional diversity of East African lacustrine cichlid fishes has attracted the attention of ichthyologists and evolutionary biologists. Ten papers included in this special issue target behavior, ecology, and population genetics in cichlids of the East African Great Lakes.

The population genetic structure of a species depends on both environmental factors and species-specific characteristics. Thus, habitat structure as well as differences in the degree of stenotopy and mobility bear on dispersal capacity and hence population connectivity in lacustrine cichlid species. This special issue includes two examples from Lake Tanganyika with opposing phylogeographic patterns. Koblmüller et al. (2015) studied the phylogeography of the world’s largest cichlid species, Boulengerochromis microlepis, an endemic to Lake Tanganyika. They found that this highly mobile predator showed no phylogeographic structure in a lake wide sample and that patterns of genetic diversity are indicative of recent population growth and/or potentially large variance in reproductive success in this extremely fecund species. Van Steenberge et al. (2015) studied Tropheus duboisi, a highly stenotopic rock-dweller with a patchy distribution in northern Lake Tanganyika, and found that this species, as predicted by its biology, exhibits pronounced levels of population genetic structure and considerable geographic variation in morphology.

Three studies addressed sexual and competitive interactions in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Hermann et al. (2015) examined the effect of male body coloration and male territory characteristics on the mate preferences of female Tropheus moorii in the context of sexual selection within and reproductive isolation between populations. Pisanski et al. (2015) report a lack of sound production during competitive and sexual interactions of the cooperatively breeding Neolamprologus pulcher, which contrasts with evidence for acoustic communication in other cichlids and demonstrates that the evolution of complex social behavior in cichlids does not rely on acoustic signaling. The costs and benefits of cooperative breeding were the focus of the study by Garvy et al. (2015), which investigated contributions to territorial defense by dominant and subordinate members of social groups of Neolamprologus savoryi.

Lake Tanganyika’s spectacular cichlid species flock likely hosts an even more diverse parasite community. The monogenean genus Cichlidogyrus appears to be particularly species rich, and previous studies have demonstrated extremely high levels of host specificity in the megadiverse littoral cichlid communities (Gillardin et al., 2011 Vanhove et al., unpublished). Here, Pariselle et al. (2015) describe a new Cichlidogyrus species and show that this species parasitizes a range of distantly related host species within the benthopelagic deepwater cichlid genus Bathybates, suggesting that reduced host specificity may represent an adaptation to low host availability in deep water habitat.

Four contributions focus on Lake Malawi’s cichlid species flock, two of which highlight the importance of ecological opportunity and habitat discontinuities for the evolution of exceptional species richness in this lake’s littoral habitats. Genner and Turner (2015) reconstructed past changes in effective population size in several species and populations. They found that pelagic species were not significantly affected by late Pleistocene megadraughts

100,000 years ago, whereas shallow-water and benthic taxa experienced rapid population expansion after the megadraught period. Given the extreme micro-endemism observed among shallow-water Lake Malawi cichlids, these findings suggest that many taxa have originated only since the last major lake level rise. Ding et al. (2015) examined the roles that various environmental variables have played for generating and maintaining the high diversity of Lake Malawi’s rock-dwelling cichlid communities. They found that cichlid species diversity and functional diversity can be readily predicted by habitat complexity whereas community similarity is strongly dependent on the geographical distance between communities. Many rock-dwelling cichlid lineages predominantly feed on epilithic algae. Maruyama et al. (2015) show that there is considerable microhabitat-level spatial variation in epilithic periphyton in the littoral zone of Lake Malawi potentially facilitating niche differentiation among rock-dwelling cichlid species. Habitat characteristics not only impact community structure but also intra-specific variation in body shape as evidenced by the study of Pauers and McMillan (2015), who conducted geometric morphometric analyses of body shapes in numerous populations of two Labeotropheus species. They found large variation in body shape among populations, hampering accurate species identification, and implying that estimates of species richness in the genus should be revisited.

Preface and Acknowledgments - Biology

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Watch the video: Production of Sophorolipid Biosurfactants by Candida riodocensis Yeast using Hydrophobic Substrate (October 2022).