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16.5: Post-lab Questions - Biology

16.5: Post-lab Questions - Biology


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  1. Explain how the bacterial cells, normally not competent, were made competent during the procedure.
  2. Differentiate between the purposes of each of the 4 plates used in the exercise.
  3. Contrast the uses of the antibiotic and arabinose in the exercise.
  4. Why did the P- bacteria grow on the LB agar without ampicillin and not in the Petri dish with the LB agar with the ampicillin?
  5. For the P+ plates, why did colonies "glow" on one plate and not the other?
  6. How is the use of Arabinose a means of gene regulation?
  7. E. coli cells can double about every 20 minutes with the proper environmental conditions. How long would it take a single transformed cell to become 100 million cells, all with resistance to ampicillin?

16.5: Post-lab Questions - Biology

Reflection (Discuss what you have learned by doing this experiment. How have your ideas changed? Do you have any new questions? What connections did you make between the lab and lecture?):

Hands-On Microscope

  1. What observations do you make observing the letter &ldquoe&rdquo at low power?
  2. At what objective magnification can you no longer see the entire letter when looking through the ocular lens?
  3. List the objective lens magnifications you used to observe the letter &ldquoe&rdquo below, along with your observations at each magnification.
  4. What did you use to create your second microscope slide?
  5. Write down your observations in viewing you second slide, and write down what magnifications you used to make those observations.

Reflection (Discuss what you have learned by doing this experiment. How have your ideas changed? Do you have any new questions? What connections did you make between the lab and lecture?):


16.5: Post-lab Questions - Biology

There are four grain phenotypes in the above ear of genetic corn: Purple & Smooth (A) , Purple & Shrunken (B) , Yellow & Smooth (C) and Yellow & Shrunken (D) . These four grain phenotypes are produced by the following two pairs of heterozygous genes ( P & p and S & s ) located on two pairs of homologous chromosomes (each gene on a separate chromosome):

Dominant Genes Recessive Genes
P = Purple p = Yellow
S = Smooth s = Shrunken

The following Table 1 shows a dihybrid cross between two heterozygous parents ( PpSs X PpSs ). The four gametes of each parent are shown along the top and left sides of the table. This cross produced the ear of genetic corn shown at the top of this page. Table I is essentially a genetic checkboard called a Punnett square after R.C Punnett, a colleague of William Bateson who devised this method. In 1900, English Geneticist William Bateson had Gregor Mendel's original 1865 paper on the genetics of garden peas translated into English and published. Thus Mendel became known to the entire scientific world. Bateson is also credited with the discovery of gene linkage in 1905.

Table 1. This table shows four different phenotypes with the following fractional ratios: 9/16 Purple & Smooth (blue), 3/16 Purple & Shrunken (red), 3/16 Yellow & Smooth (green), and 1/16 yellow and shrunken (pink). There are nine different genotypes in the table: PPSS (1), PPSs (2), PpSS (2), PpSs (4), PPss (1), Ppss (2), ppSS (1), ppSs (2) and ppss (1). You can easily calculate the number of different phenotypes and genotypes in a dihybrid cross using the following formulae:

2. Sample Chi Square Problem

Chi Square Problem: An ear of corn has a total of 381 grains, including 216 Purple & Smooth, 79 Purple & Shrunken, 65 Yellow & Smooth, and 21 Yellow & Shrunken. These phenotypes and numbers are entered in Columns 1 and 2 of the following Table 2.

Your Tentative Hypothesis: This ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross (PpSs x PpSs) involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a theoretical (expected) ratio of 9:3:3:1. See dihybrid cross in Table 1.

Objective: Test your hypothesis using chi square and probability values. In order to test your hypothesis you must fill in the columns in the following Table 2.

1. For the observed number (Column 2), enter the number of each grain phenotype counted on the ear of corn.

2. To calculate the observed ratio (Column 3), divide the number of each grain phenotype by 21 (the grain phenotype with the lowest number of grains).

3. For the expected ratio (Column 4), use 9:3:3:1, the theoretical ratio for a dihybrid cross. The fractional ratios for these four phenotypes are 9/16, 3/16, 3/16 and 1/16.

4. To calculate the expected number (Column 5), multiply the number of each grain phenotype by the expected fractional ratio for that grain phenotype.

5. In the last column (Column 6), for each grain phenotype take the observed number of grains (Column 2) and subtract the expected number (Column 5), square this difference, and then divide by the expected number (Column 5). Round off to three decimal places.

6. To calculate the chi square value, add up the four decimal values in the last column (Column 6).

7. Degrees Of Freedom: Number of phenotypes - 1. In this problem the number of phenotypes is four therefore, the degrees of freedom (df) is three (4 - 1 = 3). In the following Table 3 you need to locate the number in row three that is nearest to your chi square value of 1.80.

8. Probability Value: In the following Table 3, find the number in row three that is closest to your chi square value of 1.80. In this table 1.85 (shaded in yellow) is the closest number. Then go to the top of the column and locate your probability value. In this case the probability value that lines up with 1.85 is .60 (shaded in yellow). This number means that the probability that your hypothesis is correct is 0.60 or 60 percent. The probability that your hypothesis is incorrect is 0.40 or 40 percent.

3. A Chi Square Problem For Credit

Chi Square Problem: A large ear of corn has a total of 433 grains, including 271 Purple & Smooth, 73 Purple & Shrunken, 63 Yellow & Smooth, and 26 Yellow & Shrunken. These numbers are entered in Columns 1 and 2 of the following Table 4.

Your Tentative Hypothesis: This ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross (PpSs x PpSs) involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a theoretical (expected) ratio of 9:3:3:1. See dihybrid cross in Table 1.

Objective: Test your hypothesis using chi square and probability values. In order to test your hypothesis you must fill in the columns in the following Table 4.

1. For the observed number (Column 2), enter the number of each grain phenotype counted on the ear of corn. [Note: These numbers are already entered in Table 4.]

2. To calculate the observed ratio (Column 3), divide the number of each grain phenotype by 26 (the grain phenotype with the lowest number of grains).

3. For the expected ratio (Column 4), use 9:3:3:1, the theoretical ratio for a dihybrid cross.

4. To calculate the expected number (Column 5), multiply the number of each grain type by the expected fractional ratio for that grain phenotype. The fractional ratios for these four phenotypes are 9/16, 3/16, 3/16 and 1/16.

5. In the last column (Column 6), for each grain phenotype take the observed number of grains (Column 2) and subtract the expected number (Column 5), square this difference, and then divide by the expected number (Column 5). Round off to three decimal places.

6. To calculate the chi square value, add up the four decimal values in the last column (Column 6).

7. Degrees Of Freedom: Number of phenotypes - 1. In this problem the number of phenotypes is four therefore, the degrees of freedom (df) is three (4 - 1 = 3). In the following Table 5 you need to locate the number in row three that is nearest to your chi square value.

8. Probability Value: In the following Table 5, find the number in row three that is closest to your chi square value. For an explanation of how to find and interpret the probability value, go back to the previous example.

4. Chi Square Table Of Probabilities

5. Chi Square Quiz # 1 Scantron Questions

1. What is the chi square value? [Use Chi Square Choices]

2. What is the probability value? [Use Probability Decimal Choices]

3. Is There a GOOD or POOR fit between your hypothesis and your data? I.e. is the probability value within acceptable limits?

4. What is the percent probability that your hypothesis is correct? I.e. the observed ratio of grains in the ear of corn represents a dihybrid cross involving two pairs of heterozygous genes (PpSs X PpSs). [Use The Percent Probability Choices]

5. What is the percent probability that the observed ratio of grains in the ear of corn deviates from the expected 9:3:3:1 due to an incorrect hypothesis? I.e. your ear of corn does NOT represent a dihybrid cross involving two pairs of heterozygous genes (PpSs X PpSs). [Use The Percent Probability Choices]

6. The following question refers to a cross involving linkage, where the genes P & s are linked to the same chromosome, and the genes p & S are linked to the homologous chromosome. Refer to Section 7 below. What percent of the grains from this cross will be purple and smooth? [Use The Percent Probability Choices]

6. Chi Square Quiz # 1 Scantron Choices

7. Possible Reasons For Incorrect Hypothesis

Reasons For Incorrect Hypothesis: If your probability value is .05 (5%) or less, then your ear of corn deviates significantly from the theoretical (expected) ratio of 9:3:3:1 for a dihybrid cross. A probability value of 5% or less is considered to be a poor fit. One possible reason for a poor fit is that your original ear of corn was not produced by a dihybrid cross (PpSs X PpSs). The original parents may have had different genotypes, such as PpSS or PPSs. These genotypes when crossed together will not produce a 9:3:3:1 ratio typical of a true dihybrid cross. Another reason for an incorrect hypothesis might be due to linkage (autosomal linkage), where more than one gene is linked to the same chromosome. For example, what if the genes P & s are linked to a maternal chromosome and the genes p & S are linked to the homologous paternal chromosome. Since they occur on the same chromosomes, these linked genes will also appear together in the same gametes. They will not be assorted independently as in dihybrid cross shown in Table 1 above. The following Table 7 shows a genetic corn cross involving linkage:

There are three different phenotypes in the offspring from this cross: 1/4 Purple & Shrunken (blue), 2/4 Purple & Smooth (red) and 1/4 Yellow & Smooth (green). There are also three different genotypes: 1/4 PPss (blue), 2/4 PpSs (red) and 1/4 ppSS (green). Compare the phenotypes and genotypes in this table with the original 9:3:3:1 dihybrid cross shown above in Table 1.


Content Tested on AP Biology

The content tested on the AP Biology exam is based on the College Board's biology curriculum framework. To simplify this framework, the College Board divides the curriculum into four main "big ideas": First, evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Second, biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, reproduce and maintain homeostasis. Third, living things store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life. Finally, students should understand the complex ways in which biological organisms interact. To be best prepared to answer the exam questions, students should be able to name concepts and facts that fall within these four big picture categories.


PostLab/ Section Four

Discussion: Interpreting the results of the lab

Step 1: State whether the results from the lab procedure support your hypothesis.

Step 2: Identify specific data from your lab that led you to either support or reject your hypothesis. Refer to the visual representations of your data as evidence to back up your judgment about the hypothesis.

Step 3: Using your understanding of the scientific concept of this lab, explain why the results did or did not support your hypothesis.

Step 4: Additional discussion: (1) problems or sources of uncertainty in lab procedure (2) how your findings compare to other students' (3) suggestions for improving the lab.

Tips on writing the Discussion:

  • It is not considered a failure if your data does not support your hypothesis. Failure to support hypotheses is common in science.
  • Back up the statement about the hypothesis with direct evidence from the lab data that supports, does not support, or partially supports the hypothesis.
  • Experimental science is about testing hypotheses. You, as a scientist, must be unbiased and objective.
  • Do not introduce any new findings that are not presented in the Results.
  • Do not put detailed analysis of graphs, tables, and drawings in the discussion. The analysis belongs is Results.
  • Use the past tense when referring to what has been done in the experiment, but use present tense when talking about most everything else, such as scientific concepts, explanations, and references to articles.

Lab report structure

Lab reports can vary in length and format. These range from a form to fill in and submit before leaving the lab, to a formal written report. However, they all usually follow a similar basic structure.

Title

Abstract

  • provides an overview of the report content, including findings and conclusions
  • usually the last part of the document to be written
  • may not be required in a short lab report

Introduction

  • provides appropriate background to the experiment and briefly explains any relevant theories
  • states the problem and/or hypothesis and
  • concisely states the objective/s of the experiment

Method

  • describes equipment, materials and procedure(s) used
  • may include flow charts of procedures and/or diagrams of experimental set-up
  • outlines any processing or calculations performed on the collected data (if applicable)

Results and Analysis

  • presents results of the experiment graphically or by using tables. Figures often include error bars where applicable
  • discusses how results were analysed, including error analysis

Discussion

  • interprets key results in relation to the aims/research question
  • summarises key findings and limitations
  • makes recommendations to overcome limitations and indicate future directions in research

Conclusion

  • reminds the reader what problem was being investigated
  • summarises the findings in relation to the problem/hypothesis
  • briefly identifies big-picture implications of the findings (Answers the question "So What?")

References

  • lists the publication details of all sources cited in the text, allowing readers to locate sources quickly and easily
  • usually follows a specific referencing style

Appendices

  • an appendix (plural = appendices) contains material that is too detailed to include in the main report, such as tables of raw data or detailed calculations

Click on the links below to find out more about the different sections of a lab report.

Title

Your title needs to reflect the purpose of the experiment. Check with your demonstrator or lecturer for specific requirements.

PHS1022 Week 5 Laboratory

The Period of a Simple Pendulum

Abstract

An abstract provides a brief overview of the experiment, including its findings and conclusions. In general the abstract should answer six questions:

  • Why was the experiment conducted? (big-picture/real-world view).
  • What specific problem/research question was being addressed?
  • What methods were used to solve the problem/answer the question?
  • What results were obtained?
  • What do these results mean?
  • How do they answer the overall question or improve our understanding of the problem?

The most important thing to remember when writing the abstract is to be brief and state only what is relevant. No extraneous information should be included. It also must be clear enough so someone who is unfamiliar with your experiment could understand why you did what you did, and the conclusions you reached, without needing to read the rest of the report.

An abstract is usually only one paragraph (200-300 words max).

Tip

An abstract should be written last (even though it appears as the first section in your report), as it summarises information from all the other sections of the report.

Introduction

The Introduction should:

  • provide the context and motivation for the experiment
  • briefly explain relevant theory in sufficient detail
  • introduce any relevant laws, equations or theorems
  • clearly state the aim or research question that the experiment is designed to address.

Tip

  • Always write the introduction in your own words don&rsquot just copy from the lab notes.
  • Some brief lab reports do not require an introduction and will just begin with an aim/statement.
  • Always check with your lecturer/demonstrator if you&rsquore not sure what is expected.

Activity

Method

The method section is where you describe what you actually did. It includes the procedure that was followed. This should be a report of what you actually did, not just what was planned. A typical procedure usually includes:

  1. How apparatus and equipment were set up (e.g. experimental set-up), usually including a diagram,
  2. A list of materials used,
  3. Steps used to collect the data,
  4. Any experimental difficulties encountered and how they were resolved or worked around.

If any aspects of the experimental procedure were likely to contribute systematic error to the data and results, point this out in sufficient detail in this section.

Experimental set-up and materials

Your description of the experimental set-up should be sufficient to allow someone else to replicate the experiment themselves. You will usually begin with a description of the materials used and/or the apparatus set-up accompanied by:

  • an image showing the relevant features of any object or material under investigation
  • a diagram of the experimental setup, with each component clearly labelled

Procedure

When you carry out an experiment, you usually follow a set of instructions such as these, which may include extra information to guide you through the steps.

Lab handout example

Week 5 Laboratory instructions

  1. Use a clean pipette to measure 25ml of HCl(aq) into the conical flask.
  2. Rinse a burette with standardised NaOH(aq).
  3. Fill the burette to the 0.0ml marking with standardised NaOH(aq). Remember to take the reading from the centre of the meniscus, and from eye level. Record the actual reading in Table 1.
  4. Place a sheet of white paper under the burette. This is to make it easier to observe the colour change during the reaction.
  5. Place the conical flask onto the white paper.

Lab report example

The equipment was arranged as shown in Fig. 2.

25.0ml HCl(aq) was pipetted into a 100ml conical flask. A burette was clamped to a retort stand and filled with standardised NaOH(aq) and the initial measurement was recorded. The conical flask was placed below the burette, on top of a piece of white paper. Five drops of universal indicator solution were added to the flask.

Figure 2. Experimental set-up for titration (taken from Carroll 2017)

Lecturer's comment

When writing up the procedure, you must report what was actually done and what actually happened, and omit any extra information such as helpful hints included in the instructions. Your goal for this section should be to include enough detail for someone else to replicate what you did and achieve a similar outcome. You should also explain any modifications to the original process introduced during the experiment.

Tip

In the Procedure section you should use:

While most science units require that you report in the passive voice , some require the active voice . In the example below, the first person is used e.g. "we initiated". This is accepted in some disciplines, but not others. Check your unit information or talk to your unit coordinator.

Initiate the bicarbonate feed pump.

We initiated the bicarbonate feed pump. (active voice)

The bicarbonate feed pump was initiated. (passive voice)

Activity

Lecturers have different preferences for using active/passive voice and you will likely have to write in both voices. Read samples of student reports below and identify which examples are written in passive voice, and which use active voice.

Results and analysis

In this section, you present the main data collected during your experiment. Each key measurement needs to be reported appropriately. Data are often presented in graphs, figures or tables.

This section often also includes analysis of the raw data, such as calculations. In some disciplines the analysis is presented under its own heading, in others it is included in the results section. An analysis of the errors or uncertainties in the experiment is also usually included in this section.

Tables, graphs and figures

Most numerical data are presented using tables or graphs. These need to be labelled appropriately to clearly indicate what is shown.

Titles and captions

  • Tables should be labelled numerically as Table 1, Table 2, etc.
  • Everything else (graphs, images, diagrams etc.) is labelled numerically as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. (References to figures in the main body of the text are usually written in abbreviated form, e.g. &lsquosee Fig. 1&rsquo).
  • Table captions appear above the table. Figure captions appear below the figure.

Note that in Fig. 3, above, the student has omitted error bars on the data points. For most experiments an error analysis is important, and errors should be included in tables and on graphs.

Also, it is always best to draw figures yourself if you can. If you do use figures from another source, indicate in the citation whether you have modified it in any way.

Data can be presented in other formats, such as images:

Calculations

When showing calculations, it is usual to show the general equation, and one worked example. Where a calculation is repeated many times, the additional detail is usually included in an appendix. Check the requirements given in your unit information or lab manual, or ask your tutor if you are unsure where to place calculations.

In some disciplines, if formulae are used, it is common to number them as equations:

Lecturer's comment

In some schools, like Biology, calculations that are too detailed to go into the main body of the report can be added in an appendix. The purpose of such appendices is to present the data gathered and demonstrate the level of accuracy obtained.

A chromatogram was produced for the unknown compound U, and each of the known compounds, A-E. Rf values for each substance are listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Rf values for known compounds (A-E).

Note: U is the unknown compound.

Error analysis

As well as presenting the main findings of your experiment, it is important that you indicate how accurate your results are. This is usually done through determining the level of uncertainty. The sources of error that you need to consider will vary between experiments, but you will usually need to factor in both random and systematic errors. Your error analysis should identify the main causes of uncertainty in your measurements, note any assumptions, and show how you have calculated any error bars. Check with your demonstrator, tutor or lecturer if you are unsure about how to determine uncertainties or whether error bars are required for your experiment.

Discussion

The discussion section is where you:

  • comment on the results you obtained
  • interpret what the results mean
  • explain any results which are unexpected.

Your discussion section should demonstrate how well you understand what happened in the experiment. You should:

  • identify and comment on any trends you have observed
  • compare the experimental results with any predictions
  • identify how any sources of error might impact on the interpretation of your results
  • suggest explanations for unexpected results, and
  • where appropriate, suggest how the experiment could have been improved.

The discussion example below is from a first-year Biology unit. The aim of this experiment was to identify decomposition rates of leaf breakdown to establish rates of energy transfer.

It was expected that the leaves would show a far higher rate of decomposition in the shore zone, where there are more chances for sediments to rub against them. However the two zones show no significant difference in leaf breakdown, although these results are non-conclusive due to the limitations of this experiment. The two zones of leaf decomposition were physically too close, and over the incubation period reeds were observed growing close to the limnetic zone. This may have negatively affected the accuracy of the results by reducing the differences in habitat at these sites, as seen in other experiments (Jones et al. 2017). The results also had large standard deviations, possibly due to these physical constraints or human error in weighing leaves. Further studies with more diverse zones and precise procedures should be undertaken in order to explore leaf decomposition and rates of energy transfer more effectively.

Activity

Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example. Notice the order in which the components make up a coherent Discussion section.

Conclusion

The conclusion section should provide a take-home message summing up what has been learned from the experiment:

  • Briefly restate the purpose of the experiment (the question it was seeking to answer)
  • Identify the main findings (answer to the research question)
  • Note the main limitations that are relevant to the interpretation of the results
  • Summarise what the experiment has contributed to your understanding of the problem.

Lecturer's tip

In brief lab reports, the conclusion is presented at the end of the discussion, and does not have its own heading. This type of conclusion can also be thought of as the sentence that answers the question &ldquoSo what?&rdquo. Note that a conclusion should never introduce any new ideas or findings, only give a concise summary of those which have already been presented in the report.

Click the icons next to each paragraph to show the lecturer’s comments. Click again to hide the comment.

Legend:

References

It is quite possible that you may have in-text citations in your lab reports. Typically these will be included in the introduction to establish evidence of background for current theories or topics. Your discussion section will often include in-text citations, to show how your findings relate to those in the published literature, or to provide evidence-based suggestions or explanations for what you observed.

When in-text citations are incorporated into your lab report, you must always have the full citations included in a separate reference list. The reference list is a separate section that comes after your conclusion (and before any appendices).

Check your lab manual or unit information to determine which referencing style is preferred. Carefully follow that referencing style for your in-text references and reference list. You can find examples and information about common referencing styles in the Citing and referencing Library guide.

The following is an example of a reference list based on the in-text citations used in the Introduction and Conclusion sections in this tutorial. It has been formatted in accordance with the CSIRO referencing style.

References

Jones T, Smith K, Nguyen P, di Alberto P (2017) Effects of habitat overlap on population sampling. Environmental Ecology Journal 75, 23-29. doi: 10.5432/1111.23

Tian M, Castillo TL (2016) Solar heating uptake in Australia: rates, causes and effects. Energy Efficiency Reports. Report no. 10, The Department of Sustainability and Environment, Canberra.

Appendices

An appendix (plural = appendices) contains material that is too detailed to include in the main report, such as tables of raw data or detailed calculations.

  • given a number (or letter) and title
  • referred to by number (or letter) at the relevant point in the text.

Example text

The calculated values are shown in Table 3 below. For detailed calculations, see Appendix 1.


Top 18 Characteristic Features of Angiosperms | Flowering Plants

1. The sporophyte which is the dominant plant in the life-cycle is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.

2. The highest degree of perfection of the vascular system with true vessels in the xylem and companion cells in the phloem.

3. The organisation of the microsporophyll’s (stamens) and megasporophylls (carpels) into a structure called the flower, which is typical only of the angiosperms.

4. The presence of four microsporangia (pollen sacs) per microsporophyll (stamen).

5. The ovules are always enclosed in an ovary which is the basal region of the megasporophyll.

6. Production of two kinds of spores, microspores (pollen grains) and megaspores. Angiosperms thus are heterosporous.

7. Presence of single functional megaspore which is permanently retained within the nucellus or mega-sporangium.

8. Adaptation of flower to insect pollination.

9. Pollination consists in the transference of pollen grains from anther to stigma.

10. Spore dimorphisim having resulted in the production of gametophytes, male and female.

11. Extreme reduction in size, duration of existence and complexity of the structure of the gametophytes which are entirely parasitic.

12. The male gametophyte has reached the limits of reduction. It consists only of the pollen grain and the pollen tube contains the tube nucleus and two male gametes or nuclei. The male cells (gametes) are non-ciliated.

13. The female gametophyte lacks any extensive development of vegetative tissue. It consists of three egg apparatus cells, three antipodal cells and two polar nuclei in the centre of the embryo sac.

14. The non-motile male cells or nuclei are carried bodily to the neighborhood of egg apparatus by the pollen tube.

15. The seed or seeds remain enclosed in the ripened ovary called the fruit.

16. The phenomenon of double fertilization or triple fusion is the characteristic of the angiosperms.


What Others Have Asked

Click below to see questions from other visitors to this page.

1 paragraph on abiotic factors in grasslands & 1 paragraph on biotic factors in grasslands.
please write 1 paragraph about abiotic factors in grasslands and also please write 1 paragraph about biotic factors in grasslands. (: &hellip

How is the human population ecology different than population ecology of other organisms?
Humans can deliberately regulate their fertility. Human populations are not limited by natural resources. The nutritional requirements of humans are &hellip

Why do the numbers of individuals decrease as you move up in trophic level?
I was thinking because there's less resources or energy, but I'm not sure. Read Food Chain .

In a paticular food chain,is it possible to have more than one food chain
In my personal biology concept, food chain does not have more than one food chain, it's a linear chain. Read Food Chain .

What is typical animmals in a savanah
lions tigers mere-cats and chinchillas Study Biomes .

How many trophic levels human beings function at in a food chain?
How many trophic levels human beings function at in a food chain? Study Food Chain .

What are the four energy foods that we eat?
Are these carbohydrates, fats, proteins etc or something else like dishes because it said so in the question ''food'' what do you mean by that? Study &hellip

Give three reasons why an ecosystem will become a less hostile environment through succession.
For example soil forms, nutrients are more plentiful and plants provide shelter from the wind. Read Ecological Succession .


Help pls? POST-lab Question:Most biological adaptations are specific to a certain habitat, and will not provide an advantage toan organism that moves outside this environment. What evidence have you seen in this lab thatwould support this idea?​​​

bit.ly/3a8Nt8n

I hope this helps. Let me know if I am wrong.

the correct sequence is 1.-More veterans were able to attend college for the first time 2.-American factories were not destroyed by the war and were able to increase production to sell to foreign countries. 3.-in rural areas 4.-With the war over and the economy growing, people were more prepared to raise children. 5.- Developers built affordable, mass-produced houses in places like Levittown. 6.-TV created a common culture and developed common social norms. 7.- Car sales decreased because people were concerned about fuel consumption. 8.-that there was a religious resurgence and popularity of church evangelists in America. 9.- It was the first time presidential debates were televised. 10.- Raising the voting age because young people were too irresponsible for political involvement.

( Katie ) : Run! Stranger Danger (Kai) Aw man were on the plains of Kansas ( Max) We send him the American 500 dollars and he scam us! Suddenly, the telephone is ringing and Max answer (Max): Hello? (Airplane dude): There six pots of paint in your kitchen table come at xxx98wxx street to paint our plane *TBC*

1.) More veterans were able to attend college for the first time

2.) Americans were finally able to buy affordable goods manufactured in Europe shortly after the war ended.

4.) With the war over and the economy growing, people were more prepared to raise children.

5.) Developers built affordable, mass-produced houses in places like Levittown.

6.) TV created a common culture and developed common social norms

7.) Car sales decreased because people were concerned about fuel consumption.

9.) It was the first time presidential debates were televised.

10.) Raising the voting age because young people were too irresponsible for political involvement.


16.5: Post-lab Questions - Biology

Name ________________________________________ Section _____

Post-lab Questions - Microscopy

1. What is meant by a compound light microscope?

2. What is the microscope's field of view?

3. What happens to the field of view as the total magnification increases?

4. Which power, low or high, has the smaller field of view?

5. Which power, low or high, has the greater magnification?

6. The "e" is inverted, why is this so?

7. When you move the slide to the right which way does the "e" appear to move while viewing
the object through the microscope?

8. What part of the "e" can be seen at high power?

9. Approximately how many times smaller is the field of view at high power compared to low
power?

10 . The "thread slide" activity is designed to let you determine depth of field. Which color
thread was on top? ____________ On the bottom? ___________

11. What is depth of field? Why must you focus "through" the object when viewing it with a
compound light microscope?

12. Describe how you would prepare a "wet mount" slide of a thin strip of onion epithelial
tissue.

14. Comparison of onion epidermal cells and squamous epithelial cell from the mouth. Fill in the
table below with the information requested

Do your sketch of the two types of cells in the box under their titles. Make sure you label any major structures.

15. Briefly describe the protocol for low power view of a wet mount slide of pond water (or any
other slide)


Watch the video: Lab Safety Rules in Biology Majors lab (October 2022).